CNC Turning Cutting Tools Types, Classifications & How to Select Best CNC Cutting Tools for Turning/Machining
There is a series of CNC cutting tools with different appearances and functions to complete the operation with CNC machining program to produce internal and external cylindrical surfaces, conical surface, arc surface, thread, and more turned components automatically. What CNC turning cutting tools are commonly used and what's the difference? Follow us dajinprecision.com to find tips for how to select the best CNC tools for machining.
What is CNC Cutting Tool?
CNC cutting tool or cutter is typically a linearly moving non-rotary tool bit, used to remove some materials from the workpiece through shear deformation. Cutting is generally accomplished by single-point tools in CNC turning. Cutting tool materials must be harder than the material of the workpiece that is to be cut.
Sometimes, the special treated CNC cutting tools coating will be added on the tooltip to improve their performance, such as increasing the hardness of the cutting edge and reduce friction. Generally, HSS does usually not need the coating, while the cutting edge of titanium needed to be coated fully.
CNC Turning Cutting Tools Types & Classifications
CNC programming involves the cutting tools selection according to different machining conditions, so it's necessary to have a basic understanding of the CNC cutting tools types, features, and differences.
1. CNC cutting tools classification based on processing requirements or purposes. The CNC lathe is mainly used for the rotary workpiece machining, to create the cylindrical surface, conical surface, arc surface, thread, groove, etc.
- External turning tool
- Internal turning tool
- Thread cutting tool
- Groove cutting tool
2. CNC cutting tools classification based on tooling shapes or movement path.
- Point turning tool. This type of cutter is mainly used for turning straight surfaces of inner and outer contours, straight grooves, etc.
- Round turning tool. It's used for finishing surface with smooth connection and the surface with high precision and surface quality requirements, such as the internal and external conical surfaces with high dimensional accuracy requirements.
- Forming tool. The contour shape of the machined parts is completely determined by the cutting edge shape and size of the turning tool. On CNC lathe, it's better not or less to use it unless for thread processing.
3. CNC cutting tools classification based on tooling structure.
- Integral turning tool
- Welding turning tool
- Machine clamping turning tool
4. CNC cutting tools classification based on tooling materials
- High-Speed Steel (HSS)
- High Carbon Steel
- Cast Alloy
- Cemented Carbide
How to Find or Choose Best CNC Turning Cutting Tools?
CNC cutting tools have higher requirements than traditional machining tools.
1. Good properties and process performance
CNC cutting tool materials should have great properties like high heat resistance, wear resistance, thermal shock resistance and high-temperature mechanical properties, engineering materials with high strength, high hardness, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature resistance can adapt to the processing of complex parts and new materials
2. High precision
CNC machining requires high manufacturing accuracy of cutting tools, especially when using indexable insert tools, the specific dimensional tolerance of the cutting tools are needed.
3. Rapid replacement
You need to choose the cutting tools with good interchangeability, easy to install and convenient to adjust the size, the quick loading and unloading can save lots of time.
4. CNC cutting tools should be serialized, standardized and generalized
It can reduce the tool specification, facilitate the management, reduce the CNC machining cost and improve production efficiency.
5. Enough strength and toughness
The tool with high strength and toughness can work under the condition of great pressure, impact and vibration without breaking.
The economy should be considered from the service life and cost of the cutter.
7. The CNC cutting tool shall be able to deal with the cutting chips appropriately